Half a century ago, scientists believed they had discovered the world’s oldest rocks in the frozen expanses of Greenland, dating back a staggering 3.7 billion years. Today, with additional research and newer methods, their gaze has shifted and expanded.

Greenland to Antarctica: An Ancient Discovery

First reported in the July 21, 1973 issue of Science News, researchers had initially identified Greenland as the location of the world’s oldest rocks. The geologic specimens in question were estimated to be 3.7 billion years old, an age that seemed virtually unbeatable.

However, the scientific community soon found older evidence in an unexpected place – Antarctica. Here, they found granite and crystalline schist specimens that beat Greenland’s record by a full 300 million years, taking the world’s oldest rock title back to a significant 4 billion years.

Canada and Western Australia: Unearthing Ancient Time Capsules

Fast forward to the present, and the title of the ‘oldest known rock on Earth’ has moved to northeastern Canada. The bedrock here has been dated to an astounding 4.3 billion years old. But that’s not all; Western Australia isn’t far behind. Here, researchers discovered zircon crystals embedded in bedrock that have been dated to approximately 4.4 billion years ago. This figure is startlingly close to the age of our planet itself, estimated to be around 4.5 billion years old.

These ancient specimens are more than just geological curiosities. They serve as tangible snapshots of the Earth’s early history, holding clues to the formation of Earth’s crust, the start of plate tectonics, and even the emergence of life.

Apollo 14
Apollo 14

The Moon: An Unexpected Source of Clues

In an intriguing twist, scientists have also turned their attention skyward for answers. Lunar samples collected during the Apollo 14 mission contain zircons that are approximately 4 billion years old, which scientists speculate might have originated from Earth and been delivered via a meteorite.

The search for Earth’s oldest rocks is not merely an academic exercise. The rocks serve as a geological time machine, preserving information about our planet’s early history and offering insights that could ultimately reshape our understanding of Earth’s past.